BOP & Malnutrition


An estimated 4 billion people earn and live on less than USD 3,000 a year and, yet constitute a USD 5 trillion consumer market (WRI, 2007).

The phrase “bottom of the pyramid” was used by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt in his April 7, 1932 radio address, The Forgotten Man, in which he said…

  • “These unhappy times call for the building of plans that rest upon the forgotten, the unorganized but the indispensable units of economic power...that build from the bottom up and not from the top down that put their faith once more in the forgotten man at the bottom of the economic pyramid.” (Wikipedia)


Market researchers and large multi-national corporations are developing new business strategies to target this demographic segment with the help of ICT

  Above graph is a comparison of 2010 population by area (urban vs. rural) and BoP consumption segment (The World Bank).

  According to World Bank poverty indicator, Poverty headcount ratio at $2 a day (PPP) (% of population), a whopping 59.24 percent of India’s total population made less than USD 2-3 per day, and 23.63 percent made USD 1.25 per day (The World Bank).

  Food is the largest consumption segment for BoP households and represents the largest BoP market (WRI, 2007).

  Above graph is a comparison of spending patterns among BoP segments and the shift from food in ‘Lowest’ segment to housing and transportation in ‘Higher’ segments of the society.

  Further, this demographic segment is being tapped as the base for new entrepreneurs, producers and ultimately consumers (WEF, BCG, 2009).


  Prevalence of undernourishment (% of population), in 2012, 13.78% of global population was below minimum level of dietary energy consumption and the percentage reflects the segment of human society whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements (The World Bank, 2015)

  In 2012, the Prevalence of undernourishment (% of population) among South-Asian nations was;

  • China – 11.4 %
  • Nepal – 16 %
  • Bangladesh – 16.3 %
  • India – 17 %
  • Pakistan – 17.2 %
  • Sri Lanka – 22.8 % (The World Bank, 2015)

Works Cited  

  • The World Bank. (n.d.). Poverty headcount ratio at $2 a day (PPP) (% of population) . Retrieved June 12, 2015, from Data:
  • The World Bank. (2015, April 17). Prevalence of Undernourishment (% of Population. Retrieved June 12, 2015, from Google Public Data:
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  • WEF, BCG. (2009, January). The Next Billions: Unleashing Business Potential in Untapped Markets. Retrieved May 2013, from World Economic Forum:
  • Wikipedia. (n.d.). Bottom of the pyramid. Retrieved May 10, 2014, from Wikipedia:
  • WRI. (2007, March). The Next 4 Billion: Market Size and Business Strategy at the BAse of the Pyramid. Retrieved July 2013, from World Resources Institute:
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